Internationally, cigars are divided into large cigars and small cigars based on a weight of 3g.
Chinese cigars are divided into full-leaf cigars and half-leaf cigars. Full-leaf cigars use inner wrapper tobacco leaves to roll the inner embryo, and half-leaf cigars use brown paper to roll the inner embryo. Internationally, it is useful to use homogeneous tobacco sheets rolled into endomorphs.
In China, products are divided into strong, medium and light flavors based on flavor concentration; they are divided into three levels based on materials and rated quality.
Hand-rolled cigars: The entire cigar, including the filler, binder, and wrapper, is completely rolled by hand.
Semi-machine-rolled cigars: A machine rolls filler leaves with binding leaves to make a core, and then the wrapping leaves are rolled by hand.
Machine-rolled cigars: The entire cigar is machine-made from the inside out.
Classification of cigar tobacco leaves:
Corojo plant: A plant grown using the shade planting method. The tobacco leaves are thin, large, and have fine veins. Each plant has eight to nine pairs.
The leaves are divided into seven layers.
Criollo plant: A plant grown using the sun planting method. The tobacco leaves are thick, the leaf veins are thick, and the leaf is oily. It is used for binding leaves and filling.
Material leaves. Each plant has six to seven pairs of tobacco leaves, divided into three layers.
Shade planting method: Cover the plants with a linen tent to avoid direct sunlight.
Sun planting method: Plant directly under the sun so that the plants have sufficient sunlight.
1) Fermentation: The stacking fermentation method is often used to control the moisture content of tobacco leaves at 20-40%. The moisture content of core tobacco should be higher and the moisture content of wrapper tobacco should be higher.
Moisture is lower. When stacking, keep the leaf tips inward and the heads outward. The height of the stack is about 1.5m and the width is 1.5~2m. The length of the stack varies depending on the location. Room temperature 20~30℃. The tobacco leaves in the stack gradually heat up due to self-heating. In order to prevent the temperature from being too high and damaging the quality of the tobacco leaves, the temperature in the stack is generally controlled at 40-50°C. When the temperature in the stack reaches the predetermined temperature, the stack is turned again to reduce the temperature and moisture of the tobacco leaves. , and remove the bad gases and volatile substances produced. Turn the pile in this way 3 to 5 times, depending on the condition of the tobacco leaves.
2) Formula: The formula is combined according to the aroma characteristics of various tobacco leaves, and repeated smoking tests are carried out in order to obtain satisfactory quality. Then various tobacco additives are applied to improve the taste of the tobacco leaves, increase the aroma, and improve the process performance. The type and quantity added vary depending on the product brand.
3) Core cigarettes and cigarettes: First, mix the core leaves according to the formula and process them into strips, sheets or filaments;
The visual requirements are thin and long, without damage, and the veins are thin and elastic) Cut into pieces slightly longer than the cigarettes, roll into inner shells by hand or with a rolling machine and stick them firmly; Outer wrapper cigarettes (quality requirements are the same except for the inner wrapper) Outside the smoke, the color must be light and uniform, and have good luster.) Cut half of the leaves into sheets of required specifications according to the cutting template, place the inner embryo on the sheet, roll it tightly from the tail end to the head end, and wrap the head . There are six styles of cigarettes: round head and round tail, round head and pointed tail, round head and flat tail, pointed head and tail, pointed head and flat tail and flat head and flat tail.
4) Packaging: The packaging of cigars is extremely delicate. First, put a ring on the cigarette, print the brand and trademark, then wrap it with transparent paper, and then put it into a box. There are cardboard boxes, wooden boxes, iron boxes, cardboard boxes and soft paper boxes. The number of cigarettes in each box is 25, 10, 5, 4, etc.
The equipment for making cigars, such as moisturizing, drying, destemming, shredding, and stemming, is similar to that of a cigarette factory, but the rolling equipment is very different: ① Rolling endoforming machine, which mainly uses a push mold to roll the core The cigarettes are delivered to the inner wrapper slices, and the push mold is equipped with a spring with adjustable pressure, which adjusts the materials according to the specifications of the cigarette and controls the removal of a certain amount of core leaves from the core pipe. ②The outer wrapper rolling machine cuts the outer wrapper tobacco leaves by the cutting roller and the cutting die, and then transports them to the outer wrapper device. At the same time, the inner embryo feeding device transfers the inner embryo, rolls it into cigarettes, and trims and kneads the head. The production capacity is 13~30 pieces/minute. ③The all-round wrapping machine combines the operations of cutting the inner and outer wrappers of cigarettes, rolling the inner embryo, setting the inner embryo, rolling the outer wrapper, and trimming the cigarettes in one machine. The production capacity of this machine is 10-17 pieces/minute.